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Michael Bzorek

Optimization and Standardization of Applied Immunohistochemistry:
Analytical parameters


Immunohistochemistry is a powerful tool and widely used in diagnostic surgical pathology. The quality of the immunohistochemical staining result is highly influenced by pre-analytical (fixation, tissue processing and embedding, decalcification)  and analytical factors (blocking of endogenous activity, antigen retrieval, choice of antibodies and detection systems). Attention must be maintained to these factors and sufficient understanding of the technical aspects involved will assure reliable and reproducible end result.

This presentation attends to discuss some of the problems and variables that are often encountered in the analytic phase of the immunohistochemical procedure.  Particular reference is made to the antigen retrieval (Heat Induced Epitope Retrieval) with focus on optimization of variables such as pH, time, temperature and elementary nature of the retrieval solution. In addition, analytic factors related to specificity and sensitivity of the primary antibody clone used, reagent dilution and the choice of detection system will be addressed.


Michael Bzorek is senior histotechnologist and project coordinator at Institute of Pathology, Naestved Hospital, Denmark. He has worked within the area of immunohistochemistry for more than 20 years. He is author and co-author of more than 12 scientific papers based on immunohistochemical studies and a member of the NordiQC IHC Assessor Group (general modules) since 2010.

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